Southeast Asia - New Zealand
This view shows the clearest evidence of turbulence in the oceanic crust. As the block made up of India, Australia, Southeast Asia, and other islands hit Asia, it shattered, and the crustal wave divided. Pieces of the block were thrown eastward behind the crustal waves. The northern wave pulled the Philippines off of Borneo. Sumatra laid a trench behind Australia. As the waves advanced, counterclockwise turbulence in the crust behind the lower wave left a curved trench and created a downdraft. Australia and especially New Zealand were caught in the downdraft. Gouges trace how Eastern Australia dipped to the south. Fluidized crust, shown in red, flowed like a river with New Zealand and then past it, spreading out like a delta. The curved trench ended as a sort of shearing vortex that raised the islands of Fiji. The crustal waves froze, forming the Mariana and Tonga Trench systems.
This demonstration (similar to the one on the previous page, presentation 14) shows how turbulence affected the fluidized oceanic crust. A wooden paddle is placed in a shallow pan of water, and a drop of food coloring is added.
Moving the paddle to the right makes the water behind it rotate counterclockwise.
This is how the Tonga-New Hebrides region actually appears on the Sandwell Marine Gravity Anomaly from Satellite Altimetry map.
is the Plate Tectonics version of the formation of this region.
Subduction polarity (direction) reversed because 250 to
2,700 km to the west the plate hit the Ontong Java Plateau.
Various spreading ridges
emerged (for no particular reason) and opened the North
Fiji Basin. The full story of the spreading ridges is
even more complicated than shown, with new ones forming on
old ones at various angles. As Crawford
et al wrote, "The distribution and orientation
of spreading centres in the North Fiji Basin has been remarkably
transient with numerous microplates, parallel spreading ridges,
several unstable triple junctions, and probably leaky transform
Which explanation is more straightforward? Decide for
East of Australia, the long Lord Howe Rise "continental ribbon" reaches down to New Zealand. According to Plate Tectonics, it is a thin fragment of continental crust that split off of eastern Australia and sank to its current depth. Then, over 30 million years, most of New Zealand's southern island and the section south of New Zealand (Campbell Plateau and Chatham Rise) that look like an extension of the Lord Howe Rise, rotated in from the east so that today they are all perfectly aligned in a most convenient manner. Shock Dynamics tells a simpler and yet more remarkable story of the origin of this feature. Shown here is the "continental ribbon" (red) being formed out of turbulent, fluidized oceanic crust by the pull of New Zealand south in the down draft. The flow gains mass and speed as it goes. When New Zealand stops on the frozen wave (Tonga-Kermadec Trench), the flow rushes past it, spreads out, and stops.
Note the alluvial fan-shape south of New Zealand - the Campbell plateau.
From the digital elevation map
"Surface of the Alluvial
fan, Lawn Lake dam break 1980,
Alluvial fan, Wineglass canyon,
Death Valley, California
are substantial areas on the Earth that are not part of the 14 large
"plates" of Plate Tectonics theory that one hears so much
about. A study has found 38 additional "small plates"
plus a number of zones designated as "orogens" with fuzzy
plate boundaries. The largest "orogen"
stretches from Korea to the Alps. Another covers Alaska and
its connection with Canada. Most of the "small plates"
are in the region where the Australia-Southeast Asia block shattered
against Asia and scattered to the east. These exceptions to
the rule require special interpretation in Plate Tectonics theory,
and bring to mind the attempts to salvage the Earth-centered view
of the solar system by adding "epicycles" to the orbits
of planets in the days before Galileo.